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Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) |Symptoms and Treatment

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Corona Virus Disease/ Corona Virus symptoms / Corona / how to prevent from corona / Symptoms of corona virus disease / Prevention

Corona virus disease is an infectious respiratory disease caused by a new virus,corona virus SARS COV-2.First identified in Wuhan,Hubei province,China in December 2019.It has not been previously identified in humans,likely to be originated in animal and spread to humans. 

What is Corona Virus ?

Corona viruses are large pleomorphic spherical particles with crown like appearance hence named ‘Corona’.7 types of human corona viruses has been identified from 1960 to 2019,among which the recent SARS COV-2 virus falls under beta corona viruses. 

Corona Virus disease

• A new study from the University of Minnesota created a 3D model and found that the corona virus has thick spikes which could bind far more efficiently to human cell receptors(ACE-2)than the SARS virus. 

• This might explain how the corona virus could spread across the globe at such an alarming rate. 

• Similar corona viruses(96%)was found in bats,which bind to ACE-2 receptors in almost exactly the same way,backing up theories that this corona viruses started in bats and mutated as it moved in humans. 

COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease)

Original animal reservoir:Bats
Host cell receptors:ACE-2
Cell reservoir:Alveolar cells
Incubation period:2-14 days 

What are the Mode of transmission of Corona Virus:

Spread from one person to another primarily through respiratory droplets generated when an infected person coughs/sneezes. 

Indirect transmission through infected surfaces, plastics, coins, objects etc.

Symptoms of Corona Virus Disease

• Fever(88%) 

• Dry cough(67%) 

• Fatigue(38%) 

• Phlegm production(33%) 

• Shortness of breath(19%) 

• Muscle pain(15%) 

• Sore throat(14%) 

• Headache(14%) 

Lab diagnosis (Corona Virus Disease)

Specimen collection::

• Oropharyngeal swab 

• Nasopharyngeal swab 

• Sputum 

• Bronchial fluid

Detection::

• Real time RT-PCR test 

• In case of delayed analysis,CDC recommends that the Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab should be kept at 2-8 degree Celsius for 4 days. 

Laboratory abnormalities 

Increased :

• Neutrophil count 

• Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) 

• Alanine aminotransferase(ALT) 

• Aspartate aminotransferase(AST) 

• Total bilirubin 

• Creatinine 

• Cardiac biomarkers 

• D-dimer 

• Prothrombin time(PT) 

• Procalcitonin 

• C-reactive protein(CRP) 

Decreased :

• Lymphocyte count(CD8+&CD4+) 

• Albumin 

Histological findings 

• Diffuse alveolar damage 

• Hyaline membrane formation 

• Cellular fibromyxoid exudates 

Treatment of Corona Virus

Vaccine for Corona virus disease has not been developed till now.There is no specific treatment for the disease.Supportive medication such as Oseltamivir, remdesivir and Chloroquine phosphate has been focused. 

Article by : Anita Neupane

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